In December 2022, “Robustifying Vision Transformer without Retraining from Scratch by Test-Time Class-Conditional Feature Alignment” was published at the 31st International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence and the 25th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-ECAI 2022).
Vision Transformer (ViT) is becoming more popular in image processing. Specifically, we investigate the effectiveness of test-time adaptation (TTA) on ViT, a technique that has emerged to correct its prediction during test-time by itself. First, we benchmark various test-time adaptation approaches on ViT-B16 and ViT-L16. It is shown that the TTA is effective on ViT and the prior-convention (sensibly selecting modulation parameters) is not necessary when using proper loss function. Based on the observation, we propose a new test-time adaptation method called class-conditional feature alignment (CFA), which minimizes both the class-conditional distribution differences and the whole distribution differences of the hidden representation between the source and target in an online manner. Experiments of image classification tasks on common corruption (CIFAR-10-C, CIFAR-100-C, and ImageNet-C) and domain adaptation (digits datasets and ImageNet-Sketch) show that CFA stably outperforms the existing baselines on various datasets. We also verify that CFA is model agnostic by experimenting on ResNet, MLP-Mixer, and several ViT variants (ViT-AugReg, DeiT, and BeiT). Using BeiT backbone, CFA achieves 19.8% top-1 error rate on ImageNet-C, outperforming the existing test-time adaptation baseline 44.0%. This is a state-of-the-art result among TTA methods that do not need to alter training phase.